Effects of different processing conditions and seasonings on the formation and inhibition of cholesterol oxidation products and heterocyclic amines in meat
In the meat processing, there will produce a variety of toxic substances, such as heterocyclic amines (HAs) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). HAs are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are often found in the high-protein foods processed by high temperature and heat. Many HAs have been classified as 2A or 2B carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). COPs are generated in the stored or heated cholesterol-containing food. The purpose of this study was to test the chicken floss by QuEChERS extraction technique combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The types and contents of HAs and COPs generated during the processing of roast chicken and roast duck were investigated, and the effects of different processing methods and seasonings on the inhibition of Has and COPs were also discussed. In the processing of chicken meat floss, five kinds of HAs were generated, and the content range of which was 0.052-106.005 µg/g. The order of content of HAs was as follows: Harman > Norharman > Phe-P-1 > IQX > Trp-P-1. At the group stirred and fried at 180℃ for 20 minutes, the fried chicken floss with lard produced more HAs than that with soybean oil. The roast chicken produced 10 kinds of HAs, including 4,8-DiMeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, Harman, Norharman, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, Phe-P-1, PhIP, IFP and AαC; the roast duck produced 14 kinds of HAs, 4,8-DiMeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, Harman, Norharman, Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, Phe-P-1, PhIP, IFP, MeAαC, MeIQ, DMIP, Glu-P-1, IQ[4,5-b]; more HAs were produced in the skin than in the meat, and the roast chicken skin with added soy sauce and roast duck baked with hot air had higher HAs content. In addition, 7 kinds of COPs were generated in the processing of chicken floss, roast chicken and roast duck, including 7α-OH, 7β-OH, 5,6α-EP, 5,6β-EP, triol, 25-OH and 7-keto. The total COPs content of chicken floss was the highest, up to 35.220 µg/g; among the chicken floss stir-fried at 150℃ for 40 minutes and 180℃ for 20 minutes, the chicken floss stir-fried with lard had less COPs than that stir-fried with salad oil. In the above conditions (150℃ for 40 minutes), there was also less COPs generation without adding the soy sauce. Moreover, the rosemary seasoned roast chicken and roast duck baked with hot air also had less COPs. Duck meat had less COPs than its skin. In summary, the generation of HAs and COPs would be affected by the processing conditions and seasonings. The chicken floss made with lard at 150℃ for 40 minutes had the least HAs and COPs generated. The addition of rosemary and pepper could help to reduce HAs and COPs content in the roast chicken, and the superheated steam roasting can help to reduce HAs content in the roast duck, while the hot air roasting can help to reduce COPs content in the roast duck.
Heterocyclic amines, cholesterol oxidation products, roast chicken, chicken floss, roast duck, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometer, gas chromatography mass spectrometer