Effect of Uremic Toxin Indoxyl Sulfate on Renal Tubular Damage via Attenuating Hydrogen Sulfide Formation
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was the third gasotransmitter to be recognized as a cytoprotectant. A recent study demonstrated that exogenous supplementation of H2S ameliorates functional insufficiency in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, how the H2S system is impaired by CKD has not been elucidated. Our results show that IS activates AhR, which then attenuates transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) function through the regulation of the expression of H2S-producing enzymes such as cystathionine β-synthase, cystathionine γ-lyase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. The attenuation of H2S formation contributes to the low antioxidant defense of glutathione in uremic toxin-mediated oxidative stress, causing tubular cell damage.